№1 2018

#1'2018

CONTENTS

INITIAL STAGE OF RESEARCH ON KONDUI PALACE'S CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
N.N. Kradin, S.E. Baksheyeva, S.A. Baksheyev, S.D. Prokopetz, I.Yu. Buravlev
Sponsored by the Grant No. 14-18-01165 from Russian Science Founfation
"Towns in mediaeval empires of the Far East"
Th is article presents results of archaeological research project at Sukhoi
Arbulak site (Kondui kilns for burning of ceramic bricks and tiles) located in
Borzinsky district of Transbaikal region, 4 km northeast off of сentral palace of
the Kondui site ("Konduisky gorodok") discovered in 2012.
Th e site is a remnant of a group of 11 hills evidently containing remains of
heat engineering devices whose purpose was to burn ceramics particularly used
in house constructions. One of the hills appeared previously damaged, with
many artifacts scattered above the ground: brick fragments, tiles, decorative
blocks, roof sculptures, etc., some featuring lead glazes of two colors: green
and yellow. An abundant collection of surface material was gathered, site plan
produced, site boundaries established.
Collected materials were sent to the Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern
Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Vladivostok), to be analyzed with the
use of sophisticated new techniques. Th e aim was to reveal sources of glaze
compounds.
Th e site dates back to the Mongolian time. Th e authors maintain that the site
reperesents no less than a production centre that served the needs of the palace
complex at Kondui site because data from both are fully identical.
Th e closest analogies to this production facility were excavated by a German-
Mongolian expedition in Karakorum, the capital of Mongolian Empire.
Key words: Yuan dynasty, Mongolian Empire, Eastern Transbaikalia, kilns,
roof tile, brick, roof sculpture, glaze.

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TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING THE IMCHIN CULTURE,
ITS CERAMICS, CHRONOLOGY AND ORIGIN
O.V. Yanshina
Imchin culture represents the Late Neolithic of Sakhalin Island. Th at was a
crucial epoch in the history of Far East indigenious populations: previous Early
Neolithic culture (known as Sony culture) was disappeared and new cultural
groups were arisen. Latter are understood poorly now, and Imchin culture is one
of them. It was spread mainly on the nothern part of Sakhalin, its chronology
is controversy and its origin is unknown. Many researchers believe that this
culture was originated in the Amur river basin and therefore they consider it is a
Sakhalin branch of the adjacent Amur culture named Voznesenovskaya culture.
Other researchers suppose that Imchin culture was local originally. Th ey argue
also that bearers of Imchin culture moved from Sakhalin to Amur River region.
Th is paper focuses on ceramics from Imchin-2 settlement which is the key site
of Imchin culture. Th e analysis of the ceramics allows to clarify the chronology
of this culture and raises the question of possible genetic links between ceramic
traditions of Imchin culture and Belkachi culture of East Siberia (Yakutiya). It
seems Imchin culture was formed by the local populations on the northern part
of Sakhalin island but through the mediation of Belkachi culture representatives.
Key words: Sakhalin, Late Neolithic, Imchin-2 settlement, Imchin culture,
Belkachi culture, ceramics.

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GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY OF SHELL MIDDENS IN SOUTH KOREA
O Hyundok, M.A. Stoyakin
Th is article describes a pioneering geophysical research eff ort involving
several archaeological sites located in northwestern part of South Korea on the
Yellow Sea islands of Yeonpyeong in the early 2000s. Th e exploratory team from
National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Republic of Korea, focused
their attention on Yeonpyeong Moido, Soyunpyungdo and Kkachisan shell
mounds dated from the Neolithic. Techniques included GPR and electrical
resistivity methods. Th ese studies combined the georadar and electrogram data
from three diff erent shell middens in the same geographic environment with
data from archaeological excavations.
Various geophysical methods permitted to obtain diverse and comprehensive
information about the ancient population, confi rm or complement the outcome
of excavations, and to improve the overall quality of fi eldwork.
Key words: South Korea, Neolithic, shell mound, GPR, resistivity, island
archeology.

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NAIFELDSKAYA AND TROITSKAYA GROUPS OF MOHE CULTURE
IN WESTERN PRIAMURYE
D.P. Volkov
Th is work overviews archaeological materials attributed to Naifeldskaya and
Troitskaya groups of mediaeval populations that inhabited western Priamurye.
Based on comparative analysis, the author insists on a notion that these groups
should be considered as representing two diff erent archaeological cultures. Th e
Naifeldskaya culture of Heishui Mohe formed during 4th-5th centuries in eastern
Priamurye. In the second half of 1st century this culture expanded to Sungari
river basin, Primorye, and western Priamurye, giving birth to local variants of
the culture. Th e Troitskaya group of Mohe diff ers from the Naifeldskaya group
of Heishui Mohe but together they constitute Troitskaya archaeological culture
geographically located throughout the lands of western Priamurye and partly
southeastern Zabaikalye, chronologically tied to the time span from 8th to 12th
century.
Key words: Mohe, Naifeldskaya, Troitskaya, culture, Western Priamurye.

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PROBLEMS WITH INTERPRETING DATA ON KONDON
ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE (LOWER AMUR REGION)
M. Gabrilchuk
A "problematic zone" of Neolithic history in the Lower Amur area is a number
of issues with the Kondon culture. Th e latter is one of the oldest archaeological
cultures in the region. At the time of discovery, Kondon (Pochta) was considered
a reference site for the culture. However, a few decades later an infl ux of new data
distorted the conception of this culture, having exposed various contradictions
between its defi nitive elements. Th e whole body of culture complex began to
appear a mere conglomerate of ceramic objects. Besides, we still don’t have
any intelligible picture of stone tools assemblage. Th is paper focuses on the
discrete nature of materials within the complex, particularly its early and late
"chronological variants". Th e early variant has its own separate assemblage of
lithic and ceramic objects found on several sites. Th e late variant should be
considered unidentifi ed because of being discrete and subject to further analysis
of its component elements. Th us the question of concretization of the concept of
culture and its implications for the currently available conglomerate of Kondon
materials has arisen.
Key words: Kondon, culture, conglomerate, unindentifi ed assemblage, radiocarbon
dating.

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NEWLY FOUND UPPER PALEOLITHIC USHKOVSKAYA SITES IN KAMCHATKA
A.V. Ptashinski
Th e author reports on results of recent archaeological surveys in Kamchatks.
Th is is the fi rst release of data on microblade assemblages crucial for better understanding
the transition between Pleistocene and Holocene in Kamchatka.
Th e new data helps to broaden the source base, validate existing absolute dates,
redefi ne the geography of late Ushkovskaya Upper Paleolithic culture.
Key words: Kamchatka, Final Paleolithic, late Ushkovskaya Upper Paleolithic
culture, wedge-shaped cores, microblades, yubetsu technique, obsidian.

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THE MOHE CULTURE DWELLING FOUND ON ULDUGICHI-I SETTLEMENT SITE IN WESTERN PRIAMURYE
S.B. Valchak, A.N. Cherkasov
Th is article deals with an outcome of excavations undertaken on a semisubterranean
dwelling site located in Uldugichi-I settlement in western part
of Amur Oblast. Th e author analyzes stratigraphy and constructive features of
the dwelling, describes the obtained archaeological materials. Th is dwelling
is attributed to Troitskaya group of Priamurye’s Mohe culture. Cultural and
chronological attributions are based on a broad canvas of analogies found on
sites in Priamurye and Primorye.
Key words: Priamurye, Amur Oblast, Uldugichi-I settlement site, semi-subterranean
dwelling, Mohe culture.

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PROBLEMS WITH INTERPRETING DATA ON KONDON
ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE (LOWER AMUR REGION)
M. Gabrilchuk
A "problematic zone" of Neolithic history in the Lower Amur area is a number
of issues with the Kondon culture. Th e latter is one of the oldest archaeological
cultures in the region. At the time of discovery, Kondon (Pochta) was considered
a reference site for the culture. However, a few decades later an infl ux of new data
distorted the conception of this culture, having exposed various contradictions
between its defi nitive elements. Th e whole body of culture complex began to
appear a mere conglomerate of ceramic objects. Besides, we still don’t have
any intelligible picture of stone tools assemblage. Th is paper focuses on the
discrete nature of materials within the complex, particularly its early and late
"chronological variants". Th e early variant has its own separate assemblage of
lithic and ceramic objects found on several sites. Th e late variant should be
considered unidentifi ed because of being discrete and subject to further analysis
of its component elements. Th us the question of concretization of the concept of
culture and its implications for the currently available conglomerate of Kondon
materials has arisen.
Key words: Kondon, culture, conglomerate, unindentifi ed assemblage, radiocarbon
dating.

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BUILDING HORIZONS ON VETRODUY SETTLEMENT SITE
(BY DATA FROM DWELLING 4)
Е.V. Sidorenko
Vetroduy settlement site contains multilevel dwellings and as such is one of
the reference sites exemplifying the Paleolithic epoch in Sikhote-Alin region.
Analysis of fi lling from Dwelling 4 enabled us to reconstruct the sequence
of construction activities on this spot. Given that a particular assemblage
is monocultural, its microstratigraphy permits to understand interrelations
between objects, the order of peopling of the site, and to do comparative
analyzing correctly. Described here are three construction horizons explored
on this dwelling site.
Key words: Paleometal epoch, Primorye, Vetrodui settlement site, Lidovskaya
culture, stratigraphy, planigraphy, corellation between complexes, building
horizons.

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REVIEWING TAMGA-LIKE MARKS ON MEDIAEVAL VESSELS COLLECTED AT N.I. GRODEKOV MUSEUM OF LOCAL HISTORY IN KHABAROVSK
E.A. Shapovalova
Th e N.I.Grodekov Museum of Local History in Khabarovsk holds a valuable
collection of pottery from cemeteries attributed to Pokrovskaya (Amur Jurzhen)
culture of Priamurye (Amur region) particularly notable for traces of symbols
drawn on vessels. A few dozen wheel-made vessels include vases and pots, some
featuring ribbing ornamentation. Th e marks appear either as pre-burn imprints
or post-burn incisions. A rather big variety of symbols suggests a plethora of
meanings intended either by potters or owners. Th e symbols divide into two
types of pattern: geometric or anthropomorphic. Some of them are widespread,
others never occur outside particular lots. Some can be perceived as trademarks,
others as amulets, yet others as marks of possession. Apart from cemeteries,
analogies were found on walled town and dwelling sites of the Jurzhen in
Priamurye and Primorye.
Key words: Priamurye, Primorye, Jurzhen, cemeteries, tamga-like symbols,
ceramics.

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